Chapter 3: Training

training and development

Bismilahhirahmanirrahim ~ In The Name Of Allah The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful  

What is TRAINING ?

Training is the attempt by an organization to change employees through learning process so that they are able to perform their jobs as efficiently as possible.

ASK Model

A – change Attitude

S – develop Skills

K – increase Knowledge

The Human Resource Development Fund

  • Sector which required to contribute to the human resource development fund
    • manufacturing, empolyees > 50
    • manufacturing, 10-49 employees but paid up capital of RM2.5 million and above
    • services with more than 10 employees in the following areas:
      • hotel, tour operators, shipping, air transport, advertising, telecommunication, postal and courier services, computer services, freight forwording, private higher education, warehousing services, security services, hypermarket, supermarket, department stores, training, accounting & auditing, direct selling, engineering, consultancy, private hospitals, road transport, railways.

What Happens To A Company Which Does Not Train Its Employees?

The following costs will incur if an employer does not train his employees:

  • Payment to employees when learning on the job, which may take longer if it is not properly planned for.
  • Costs of wasted materials, sales and customers lost because of mistakes made by untrained employees.
  • Management time cost taken to undo the mistakes made by the untrained employees.
  • Lowered morale, leading to higher turnover, amongs team members who are demotivated by working with an untrained employees.
  • Accident-related costs; it is well-documented that untrained workers tend to have more accidents. 
  • Higher turnover leading to recruitment costs because employees feel they have no prospects of further development.

Benefits of Training

  • Oppotunities attract and help to retain talented workers.
  • Increases worker productivity.
  • Increase worker’s job satisfaction.
  • Keeps workers up-to-date.
  • Helps to motivate workers.

The Training Process

Identify training needs >>> Set training objectives >>> Develop training programme >>> Implement the programme >>> Evaluate the programme.

What Is A Training Need?

A training is a problem which prevents work being done satisfactorily and which can be overcome by training.

Training Needs Analysis 

  • Who needs training?
    • In Situation
      • new employees
      • promotion and transfer
      • new machinery
      • new procedures and policies
      • new products or services
  • What skills or knowledge do they need? Do their attitudes need changing?
  • Problems suggesting a training need include:
    • falling output
    • rising error, scrap, waste, mistakes
    • increasing time taken to complete work
    • increasing accident rate
    • increasing customer complaints

Training Objectives

1) Behaviour required of the trainee

2) Standards of performance

3) Conditions for performance

Developing Training Programmes 

Factors to consider:

  • venue
  • trainer
  • duration
  • budget
  • individual or group
  • methodology
  • logistics

Training Venue

1) On the Job 

Step 1

Break down the job into its separate parts

Step 2

Give an overview of the job

Step 3

Demonstrate a part of the job for the trainee

Step 4

Let the trainee try to do what has been demonstrated

Step 5

Correct any mistakes

Step 6

Let trainee practice

Training Methods

1) Lecture

2) Handouts

3) Audio-visual aids

4) Computer-aided learning/eLearning

5) Role playing

6) Case studies

7) Simulation

8) Coaching

9) Apprenticeship

10) Projects/special assignments

Learning Principle

1) The learner must want to learn.

2) Active learning is more effective than passive learning.

3) Learning is faster in teams.


  • eLearning allows learners to learn at the speed which suits them best.
  • eLearning allows for savings on logistics costs.
  • elearning allows employees to learn at times which suits them best.
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