Cyber Law: Type of Defamation

type of defamation

Assalamualaikum & Hi !

Today I want to share my Cyber Law notes. Recently I found this notes in my old laptop. This notes is just for my reference because I always lost my notes. Therefore, it easy for me to search back my notes if I post here. So, I wonder if you guys also need this notes especially Unikl miit students, I think laaa..  Just to highlight that my notes are not 100% correct, and you guys need to refer your lecturer ok!


  • Defamation in a permanent form and usually visible to the eye, such as email, pictures, statues or effigies.
    permanent and visible form.
  • written statement which is not true.
  • Sec. 3: broadcasting of words by means of radio communication shall be treated as publication in a permanent form and constitutes libel.
  • Actionable per se (P need not to prove any damage).
  • The law presumes that when a person’s reputation is assailed, some damage must result.



  • spoken words.
  • spoken words which is not true.
  • Defamation in a temporary or transient form. Usually made through spoken words or gestures.
  • Not actionable per se and the P needs to prove actual/special damage in order to succeed in his action.
  • Actual/special damage refers to actual financial loss or any loss that may be measured in monetary terms.
  • Loss of friendship or excommunication (x actual damage).
  • Loss of business or employment (actual damage).
  • The Plaintiff must prove the actual words used.


This is my notes and not complete, might be incorrect or correct
. You may refer to your lectures
. Thank you for reading.. Hope this note help you to make quick review for your subject..

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